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Exam Number : ABFM
Exam Name : Family Medicine Board Certification Exam
Vendor Name : Certification-Board
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ABFM Exam Format | ABFM Course Contents | ABFM Course Outline | ABFM Exam Syllabus | ABFM Exam Objectives

Number of questions: 200 questions Percent

01. Basic science aspects of vascular neurology 4-6%

02. Risk factors and epidemiology 8-12%

03. Clinical features of cerebrovascular diseases 8-12%

04. Evaluation of the patient with cerebrovascular disease 13-17%

05. Causes of stroke 18-22%

06. Complications of stroke 4-6%

07. Treatment of patients with stroke 28-32%

08. Recovery, regenerative approaches, and rehabilitation 4-6%

TOTAL 100%

Content Areas

01. Basic science aspects of vascular neurology

A. Vascular neuroanatomy

1. Extracranial arterial anatomy

2. Intracranial arterial anatomy

3. Collaterals

4. Alterations of vascular anatomy

5. Venous anatomy

6. Spinal cord vascular anatomy

7. Specific vascular-brain anatomic correlations

8. End vessel syndromes

B. Stroke pathophysiology

1. Cerebral blood flow

a. Vascular smooth muscle control

b. Vasodilation and vasoconstriction

c. Autoregulation

d. Vasospasm

e. Rheology

f. Blood flow in stroke

2. Blood-brain barrier in stroke

3. Coagulation cascade

a. Clotting factors

b. Platelet function

c. Endothelium function

d. Biochemical factors

4. Metabolic and cellular consequences of ischemia

a. Ischemic cascade

b. Reperfusion changes

c. Electrophysiology

d. Gene regulation

5. Inflammation and stroke

6. Brain edema and increased ICP

a. Secondary effects

7. Restoration and recovery following stroke

8. Secondary consequences from intracranial bleeding

C. Neuropathology of stroke

1. Vascular neuropathology

2. Atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque

3. Brain and meningeal biopsy

a. Indications

4. Pathological/imaging/clinical correlations

02. Prevention, risk factors, and epidemiology

A. Populations at risk for stroke

1. Non-modifiable risk factors

2. Age, gender, ethnicity, geography, family history

B. Modifiable risk factors for stroke

1. Hypertension

2. Diabetes mellitus

3. Cholesterol

4. Homocysteine

5. Obesity

6. Alcohol abuse

7. Tobacco use

8. Drug abuse

9. Practice and other lifestyle factors

C. Infections predisposing to stroke

D. Genetic factors predicting stroke

E. Stroke as a complication of other medical illness

F. Special populations at risk for stroke

1. Children and adolescents

2. Young adults

3. Pregnancy

G. Stroke education programs and regional health services

1. Screening

2. Medical economics

3. Primary versus high risk prevention

4. National stroke programs

H. Concepts of clinical research

1. Use and interpretation of statistics

2. Clinical trial design and methodology

3. Understanding the medical literature

4. Rules of evidence and guidelines

5. Rating instruments and stroke scales

I. Outcomes

1. Prognosis

2. Mortality and morbidity of stroke subtypes

03. Clinical features of cerebrovascular diseases

A. Neuro-otology

1. Head and neck pathology

2. Vertigo and hearing loss in stroke

B. Neuro-ophthalmology

1. Retinal changes of vascular disease, including arterial hypertension

and retinal embolism

2. Other ocular manifestations of vascular disease

a. Ischemic oculopathy

b. Horner syndrome

c. Cavernous sinus syndrome

3. Disorders of ocular motility

4. Visual field defects

C. Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

1. General features of TIA

2. Carotid circulation TIA including amaurosis fugax

3. Vertebrobasilar circulation TIA

4. Asymptomatic carotid bruit or stenosis

5. Differential diagnosis of TIA

D. Ischemic stroke syndromes—cerebral hemispheres

1. Cortical stroke syndromes

a. Branch cortical artery syndromes

b. Watershed syndromes

2. Subcortical stroke syndromes

a. Lacunar strokes

b. Striatocapsular infarctions

c. Multiple lacunar infarcts

3. Major hemispheric syndromes

a. Internal carotid artery occlusion

b. Middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, or posterior cerebral artery

4. Behavioral and cognitive impairments following stroke

5. Bi-hemispheric stroke, including hypotensive events

6. Multifocal or diffuse disease

E. Ischemic stroke syndromes—brainstem and cerebellum

1. Basilar artery occlusion

a. Locked-in syndrome

b. Major brainstem strokes

2. Vertebral artery occlusion

3. Branch brainstem stroke syndromes

4. Syndromes from cerebellar arteries (brainstem/cerebellum)

5. Top-of-the-basilar syndromes

6. Thalamic syndromes

F. Ischemic stroke syndromes of the spinal cord

G. Vascular dementia (vascular cognitive impairment) and vascular cognitive


1. Multi-infarction (multiple subcortical infarctions)

2. White matter disease (leukoaraiosis, Binswanger subcortical


H. Features differentiating hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke

I. Intracerebral hemorrhage

1. Hypertension

2. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

3. Coagulopathy/bleeding diatheses

4. Locations

a. Putamen

b. Thalamus

c. Lobar and white matter

d. Brainstem

e. Cerebellum

J. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

1. Saccular aneurysms

2. Other aneurysms

3. Unruptured aneurysm

4. Trauma

K. Vascular malformations

1. Hemorrhage

2. Other presentations

L. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage

M. Subdural or epidural hematoma

N. Venous thrombosis

1. Cavernous sinus

2. Superior sagittal sinus

3. Other sinus

4. Cortical thrombophlebitis

5. Deep cerebral veins

O. Carotid cavernous or dural fistulas

P. Pituitary apoplexy

Q. Hypertensive encephalopathy and eclampsia

R. Clinical presentations of primary and multisystem vasculitides

S. Hypoxia-ischemia

1. Cardiac arrest

2. Carbon monoxide poisoning

3. Cortical laminar necrosis

4. Other

T. Brain death

U. MELAS and metabolic disorders causing neurologic symptoms

V. Nonstroke presentations of vascular disease

W. Cardiovascular diseases

1. Heart disease, including coronary artery disease

2. Cardiac complications of stroke

3. Peripheral arterial disease

4. Aortic disease

5. Venous disease

X. Vascular presentations of other diseases of the central nervous system

Y. Infectious diseases and stroke

Z. Migraine

04. Evaluation of the patient with cerebrovascular disease

A. Evaluation of the brain and spinal cord

1. Computed tomography of brain

a. Acute changes of ischemic stroke

b. Acute changes of hemorrhagic stroke

c. Chronic changes of stroke

d. Complications of stroke

e. Vascular imaging by CT

f. Differential diagnosis by CT

g. CT perfusion

h. MR perfusion

2. Computed tomography of spine and spinal cord

3. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain

a. MRI sequences—T1, T2, FLAIR, DWI, PWI, gradient echo

b. MR spectroscopy

c. Acute changes of ischemic stroke

d. Acute changes of hemorrhagic stroke

i. Changes affected by time

e. Functional MRI

f. Vascular imaging by CT

g. Vascular imaging by MRI

4. PET and SPECT

5. EEG and evoked potentials—stroke

a. Changes in stroke

b. Complications of stroke

c. Monitoring

6. Exam of the CSF

7. ICP monitoring

B. Evaluation of the vasculature—occlusive or non-occlusive

1. Arteriography and venography

a. Cerebral

b. Spinal cord

2. Extracranial ultrasonography

a. Duplex and other imaging

b. Collateral flow challenges

c. Monitoring

3. Intracranial ultrasonography

a. Collateral flow changes

b. Contrast enhancement

c. Monitoring

4. CT angiography and CT venography

5. MR angiography and MR venography

C. Evaluation of the heart and great vessels

1. Electrocardiography

a. Monitoring

b. Holter and event monitors

2. TTE and TEE

a. Contrast-enhanced studies

3. Other chest imaging studies

a. Chest x-ray

b. Chest CT

c. Chest MRI

4. Other studies

a. Blood pressure monitoring

b. Blood cultures

c. Testing for ischemic heart disease

d. Peripheral artery disease

D. Other diagnostic studies

1. Hematologic studies

a. Blood count

b. Platelet count

c. Special coagulation studies

d. Antiplatelet (aspirin, clopidogrel) resistance studies

2. Immunological studies

a. Inflammatory markers

b. Other autoimmune studies (multisystem)

c. Serologic studies

3. Biochemical studies

a. Glucose

b. Cholesterol

c. Blood gases

d. Hepatic and renal tests

4. Urine tests

5. Biopsies

6. Evaluation for the complications of stroke

7. Evaluation for the consequences of stroke

a. Swallowing

b. Orthopedic

c. Other

8. Genetic testing

05. Causes of stroke

A. Atherosclerosis—ischemic stroke

1. Evaluation of patients prior to non-cerebrovascular operations

2. Asymptomatic bruit or stenosis

3. Aortic atherosclerosis

B. Non-atherosclerotic vasculopathies—ischemic stroke

1. Non-inflammatory

a. Dissection

b. Moyamoya disease

c. Fibromuscular dysplasia

d. Trauma

e. Radiation-induced vasculopathy

f. Saccular aneurysm

g. Other

2. Infectious

a. Syphilis

b. Herpes zoster


d. Cysticercosis

e. Bacterial meningitis

f. Aspergillosis

g. Mucormycosis

h. Cat-scratch disease

i. Behçet syndrome

j. Other

3. Inflammatory, non-infectious (angiitis)

a. Isolated CNS vasculitis

b. Multisystem vasculitis

c. Cogan syndrome

d. Eales disease

e. Polyarteritis nodosa

f. Wegener granulomatosis with polyangiitis

g. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss


h. Takayasu disease

i. Systemic lupus erythematosus

j. Scleroderma

k. Rheumatoid arthritis

l. Mixed connective tissue disease

m. Ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis

n. Sarcoidosis

o. Other

C. Migraine

D. Other causes of ischemic stroke

1. Kawasaki disease

2. Lyme disease

3. Susac syndrome

E. Genetic and metabolic causes of stroke



3. Fabry-Anderson disease

4. Homocystinuria

5. Kearns-Sayre syndrome

6. Myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers

7. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV

8. Marfan syndrome


10. Other monogenetic small vessel brain diseases

11. Other

F. Drugs that cause stroke, including drugs of abuse

G. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy—infarction or hemorrhage

H. Cardioembolic causes of stroke

1. Atrial fibrillation

2. Cardiovascular procedures and operations

3. Acute myocardial infarction

4. Dilated cardiomyopathy

5. Rheumatic mitral or aortic stenosis

6. Infective endocarditis

7. Libman-Sacks endocarditis

8. Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis

9. Mechanical or bioprosthetic valves

10. Atrial myxoma

11. Sick sinus syndrome

12. Mitral valve prolapse

13. Patent foramen ovale, including atrial septal aneurysm

14. Congenital heart diseases, including cyanotic heart disease

15. Other

I. Prothrombotic causes of stroke

1. Inherited

a. Sickle cell disease

b. Factor V Leiden—activated protein C resistance

c. Prothrombin gene mutation

d. Protein S, C, antithrombin

e. Thalassemia

f. Iron deficiency anemia

g. Others

2. Acquired

a. Pregnancy

b. Cancer

c. Dehydration

d. Thrombocytosis

e. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

f. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT)

g. Leukemia

h. Disseminated intravascular coagulation

i. Nephrotic syndrome

j. Hemolytic uremic syndrome

k. Sepsis and inflammation

l. Other

3. Autoimmune causes of thrombosis

a. Lupus and lupus anticoagulant, Sneddon syndrome and

antiphospholipid antibodies

b. Others

4. Iatrogenic/drugs/toxins

a. Antineoplastic

b. Prothrombotic agents

c. Others

J. Bleeding diatheses

1. Inherited

a. Hemophilia

b. Sickle cell disease

c. Thalassemia

d. von Willebrands disease

e. Others

2. Acquired

a. Leukemia

b. Thrombocytopenia

c. Disseminated intravascular coagulation

d. Others

3. Systemic diseases

4. Iatrogenic/drugs/toxins

a. Anticoagulants

b. Antiplatelet aggregating agents

c. Thrombolytic agents

d. Drugs of abuse

e. Others

K. Aneurysms

1. Saccular

2. Infected

3. Traumatic

4. Neoplastic

5. Dolichoectatic

6. Dissecting

L. Vascular malformations

1. Arteriovenous

2. Developmental venous anomaly

3. Cavernous

4. Telangiectasia

5. Dural arteriovenous fistula

M. Trauma and intracranial bleeding

N. Moyamoya disease and syndrome

O. Hypertensive hemorrhage

P. Other causes of hemorrhage

1. Vasculitis

2. Tumors

a. Primary

b. Metastatic

3. Iatrogenic

Q. Genetic diseases causing hemorrhagic stroke

06. Complications of stroke

A. Early neurologic complications

1. Brain edema, increased ICP, and herniation

2. Hydrocephalus

3. Seizures

4. Hemorrhagic transformation

5. Recurrent infarction

6. Recurrent hemorrhage

7. Other

B. Early medical complications

1. Cardiac

2. Gastrointestinal

3. Pulmonary

4. Electrolyte

5. Other

C. Chronic neurologic sequelae

D. Chronic medical sequelae

07. Treatment of patients with stroke

A. Outpatient management

1. Patient educational materials

B. Medical therapies to prevent stroke

1. Antiplatelet agents

a. Aspirin

b. Clopidogrel

c. Ticlodipine

d. Dipyridamole

e. Cilostazol

f. Prasugrel

g. Ticagrelor

h. Others

2. Anticoagulant agents

a. Warfarin

b. Heparin

c. LMW heparins

d. Direct thrombin inhibitors

e. Factor X inhibitors

3. Thrombolytic agents

4. Neuroprotective agents and other acute treatments

5. Cardioactive agents

6. Medications to prevent stroke by treating risk factors

a. Hyperlipidemia

b. Diabetes mellitus

c. Hypertension

d. Smoking

e. Hyperhomocysteinemia

f. Antiinflammatory

g. Alcohol dependence and detoxification

7. Medications to treat autoimmune diseases and vasculitis

8. Medications to treat complications of stroke

a. Anticonvulsants

b. Antidepressants

c. Brain edema and increased ICP

i. Hypertonic saline

ii. Mannitol

9. Medications to improve or restore neurologic function or to

augment rehabilitation

10. Medications to prevent rebleeding or vasospasm following a


a. Aminocaproic acid

b. Tranexamic acid

c. Nimodipine

11. Antimigraine medications

12. Vitamins

13. Interactions between medications

C. Hyperacute treatment of ischemic stroke

1. Emergency department

a. Intravenous thrombolytics

b. Intra-arterial thrombolytics

c. Mechanical thrombectomy

d. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents

e. Antihypertensives

f. Anticonvulsants

g. Other

2. Hospitalization – general management

a. Prevention of recurrent stroke

b. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary


c. Blood pressure management

d. Treatment of complications

e. Treatment of comorbid diseases

f. Treatment of risk factors for stroke

g. Other

3. Intensive care unit

a. Osmotic agents

b. Steroids

c. Sedation

d. Blood products

e. Anti-vasospasm therapy

f. Management of ventriculostomy

g. Temperature control

h. Antiarrhythmics

i. Ventilator management

j. Pressors

k. Antibiotics

l. Other

4. Neurosurgical management

a. Hemorrhage

i. Evacuation

ii. Ventriculostomy

b. Ruptured aneurysms

i. Management of vasospasm

c. Vascular malformations

d. Surgical treatment of brain edema – decompressive


e. Other

D. Chronic care

1. Antidepressants

2. Sedatives

3. Stimulants

E. Treatment of venous thrombosis

F. Treatment of spinal cord vascular disease

G. Treatment of pituitary apoplexy

H. Professionalism, ethics, systems-based practice

1. Palliative care

2. End-of-life decisions

3. Advanced directives, informed consent, regulations

4. Other

08. Recovery, regenerative approaches, and rehabilitation

A. Functional exam

B. Regeneration and plasticity

C. Predicting outcomes

D. Pharmacologic effects on recovery

E. Rehabilitation principles

F. Emerging approaches

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ideal Database (DBA) and SQL Certifications for 2023 | Resources

  • Database expertise is vital in varied applications and computing projects, and certifications support display job readiness and core capabilities. 
  • before pursuing a database platform certification, you'll want to have an exceptional heritage in relational database administration techniques and the SQL language. 
  • advantageous certifications are usually tied to particular know-how companies and their structures, comparable to IBM, Microsoft, Oracle and SAP.
  • this article is for IT gurus due to the fact that database certifications to extra their careers. 
  • whereas database systems have come and long past during the decades, database expertise continues to be essential for distinct applications and computing tasks. IT experts commonly are searching for database certifications to show their expertise and capabilities as they navigate their career paths and pursue expert boom. 

    while database certifications can also not be as bleeding facet as Google cloud certifications, cybersecurity certifications, storage certifications or digital forensics certifications, database specialists in any respect tiers possess in-demand career talents — and a plethora of database-linked jobs are waiting to be crammed.

    We’ll look at some of the most in-demand certifications for database directors, database builders and anyone else who works with databases.

    What to learn about database roles and certifications

    To get a more robust grasp of obtainable database certifications, it’s valuable to group these certs round job tasks. This reflects the maturity of database technology and its integration into most facets of commercial, scientific and academic computing. As you examine in regards to the a considerable number of database certification courses, preserve these job roles in intellect: 

  • Database administrator (DBA). A DBA is chargeable for installing, configuring and conserving a database management equipment (DBMS). The job is regularly tied to a selected platform, comparable to Oracle, MySQL, DB2 or SQL Server.
  • Database developer. A database developer works with regularly occurring and proprietary software programming interfaces (APIs) to construct purposes that engage with a DBMS. Like DBA roles, database developer positions are additionally commonly platform-particular.
  • Database clothier or database architect. A database dressmaker or architect researches records necessities for selected applications or clients and designs database structures and utility capabilities to fit.
  • records analyst or data scientist. an information analyst or scientist is liable for inspecting information from assorted disparate sources to find in the past hidden insights, assess the that means at the back of facts, and make business-specific suggestions.
  • facts mining or company intelligence (BI) specialist. a knowledge mining or BI specialist makes a speciality of dissecting, examining and reporting important statistics streams, similar to customer, provide chain and transaction facts and histories.
  • statistics warehousing professional. a knowledge warehousing specialist assembles and analyzes data from distinctive operational techniques (akin to orders, transactions, deliver chain advice and client records) to set up records history, analyze traits, generate experiences and forecasts, and assist regular ad hoc queries. 
  • These database job roles highlight two vital concerns to consider in case you need to be a database professional:

  • You want a fantastic prevalent historical past. First, a historical past in relational database administration techniques, including an figuring out of Structured question Language (SQL), is a fundamental prerequisite for database gurus of all stripes. 
  • There’s a focus on proprietary applied sciences. 2nd, youngsters various efforts to standardize database know-how exist, plenty of the whiz-bang capability that databases and database functions convey comes from proprietary, supplier-selected technologies. severe, heavy-responsibility database talents and expertise are tied to certain platforms, including various Oracle items (such because the open-supply MySQL ambiance and Oracle itself,) Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. each one of these certifications relate without delay to those highly familiar platforms. 
  • NoSQL databases — referred to as “now not handiest SQL” or “non-relational” databases — are more and more utilized in massive records applications associated with one of the most fulfilling large information certifications for statistics scientists, statistics mining and warehousing, and company intelligence.

    most desirable database certifications

    listed below are particulars on our five optimal database certification picks for 2023.

    1. IBM licensed Database Administrator — DB2 12

    IBM is among the leaders within the international database market via any objective measure. The business’s database portfolio contains business-regular DB2, as neatly because the following:

  • IBM Compose
  • counsel management gadget (IMS)
  • Informix
  • Cloudant
  • IBM Open Platform with Apache Hadoop
  • IBM also has a long-standing and smartly-populated IT certification application that has been round for greater than 30 years and encompasses a whole lot of individual credentials. 

    After redesigning its certification programs and categories, IBM now has a prime records-centric certification class known as IBM records and AI. It contains various database credentials: 

  • Database associate
  • Database Administrator
  • gadget Administrator
  • application Developer 
  • IBM’s is a large and complex certification area, but one the place selected platform allegiances are more likely to e book readers toward the handful of items most valuable to their pursuits and needs. 

    Database professionals who support DB2 (or aspire to) on IBM’s z/OS should try the IBM associate licensed DBA — Db2 12 certification. It’s an entry-level examination that addresses hobbies planning, working with SQL and XML, protection, operations, information concurrency, application design, and concepts round database objects.

    This certification requires candidates to move one exam. Pre-examination training and familiarity with ideas, or arms-on event, are advised however no longer required. 

    IBM licensed Database Administrator — DB2 data and figures

    Certification name

    IBM licensed Database Administrator — Db2 12 (z/OS)

    prerequisites and required courses

    None required; counseled classes are available.

    number of exams

    One: C1000-122: Db2 12 for z/OS DBA Fundamentals (sixty three questions, 90 minutes)

    cost per exam

    $200 (or local currency equivalent) per exam. sign up for tests at Pearson VUE.


    Self-analyze substances

    The certification page includes self-study substances, together with a look at ebook and a gaining knowledge of route. 

    did you know? IBM’s certification offerings are among the choicest device administrator certifications IT professionals can achieve.

    2. Microsoft Azure

    Microsoft Azure presents a vast range of tools and add-ons for business intelligence. Azure is a cloud computing platform for application administration and Microsoft-managed data facilities. Microsoft certifications include various Azure offerings based on job position and experience stage.

    Microsoft’s certification software is function-centric, headquartered on the potential you deserve to be triumphant in certain know-how jobs. because Azure has such a large scope, Azure certifications span diverse job roles. however, particular certifications exist for here positions:

  • facts Analysts
  • information Engineers
  • facts Scientists
  • Database administrators 
  • There are additionally certifications for newbies at diverse experience ranges. 

    For those trying to take their Azure abilities to the subsequent degree, the Microsoft licensed: Azure facts Fundamentals certification is the superb region to start. This certification is for newbie database directors attracted to the usage of Azure and mastering facts in the cloud. It presents foundational abilities of core concepts while reinforcing ideas for later use in different Azure function-primarily based certifications, corresponding to these listed below: 

  • Azure Database Administrator affiliate
  • Azure records Engineer associate
  • facts Analyst affiliate 
  • Azure records Fundamentals certification records and figures

    Certification identify

    Microsoft licensed: Azure records Fundamentals

    must haves and required courses 

    This certification does not have any prerequisites. youngsters, for absolute beginners, Microsoft presents an Azure Fundamentals certification. 

    number of tests

    One exam, DP-900, which is administered by way of Pearson VUE or Certiport.

    charge per exam

    The examination charges $ninety nine in the u.s., even though the cost changes in response to where it's proctored. 


    Self-analyze substances

    Microsoft offers one of the most world’s largest and finest-regular IT certification programs, so the exam is smartly supported with books, look at publications, examine groups, practice exams and different substances. Microsoft additionally presents a free on-line gaining knowledge of path.

    3. Oracle licensed professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator 

    Oracle runs its certifications beneath the auspices of Oracle university. The Oracle Database Certifications web page lists separate tracks counting on job position and product. MySQL is perhaps the main open-supply relational database management gadget (RDBMS). since acquiring sun Microsystems in 2010 (which had prior to now received MySQL AB), Oracle has rolled out a paid edition of MySQL and developed certifications to aid the product. 

    in case you’re interested in pursuing an Oracle MySQL certification, that you could choose from MySQL Database Administration and MySQL Developer. 

    The Oracle licensed expert, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator (OCP) credential acknowledges authorities who can accomplish right here projects:

  • installation, optimize and video display MySQL Server.
  • Configure replication.
  • follow protection.
  • time table and validate database backups. 
  • The certification requires candidates to pass a single examination (the equal examination may also be taken to upgrade a previous certification). Oracle recommends working towards and on-the-job experience earlier than taking the exam.

    Oracle licensed skilled, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator facts and figures

    do you know? in line with Oracle, about 1.eight million Oracle licensed specialists globally grasp certifications to advance their networking careers and professions to validate their IT capabilities. 

    4. Oracle Database SQL licensed affiliate Certification

    for individuals interested in working within the Oracle environment who've the critical experience to turn into a database administrator, Oracle’s Database SQL licensed affiliate Certification is a different exact Oracle certification and a superb beginning aspect. This examination encompasses an understanding of simple SQL ideas that individuals have to hold close for database initiatives. 

    via incomes the certification, people exhibit that they have got a variety of capabilities in core SQL ideas:

  • Familiarity with queries, statistics modeling, and normalization
  • mighty base knowing of the underlying SQL language
  • An ability to create and manipulate Oracle Database tables 
  • This certification also requires candidates to circulate a single examination. while Oracle does not specify any must haves, the enterprise does state candidates should have familiarity working with the command line. 

    Oracle Database SQL licensed affiliate Certification statistics and figures 5. SAP HANA: SAP licensed technology associate — SAP HANA 2.0 SPS05

    SAP SE has an in depth portfolio of company applications and analytics application, including cloud infrastructure, functions and storage. The SAP HANA platform’s groundwork is an business-grade relational database management system that can be run as an equipment on-premises or in the cloud. The cloud platform lets customers construct and run applications and features in accordance with SAP HANA. 

    SAP presents a finished certification software constructed to help its a considerable number of structures and items. We’re that includes the SAP certified technology affiliate — SAP HANA cert since it aligns closely with different certifications we’ve highlighted and is in excessive demand amongst employers, in line with job board surveys. 

    This certification ensures database authorities can installation, control, computer screen, migrate and troubleshoot SAP HANA programs. It covers here competencies:

  • Managing clients and authorizations
  • making use of safety
  • ensuring high availability 
  • valuable disaster-recuperation strategies 
  • SAP recommends that certification candidates get palms-on apply through formal practicing or on-the-job journey before making an attempt this examination. The SAP learning Hub is a subscription provider that gives certification candidates access to a library of discovering substances, including e-discovering courses and path handbooks. 

    The annual subscription fee for particular person users on the skilled certification tune is $2,760. This on-line practising software is designed for people that run, support, or put in force SAP utility solutions. notwithstanding this may also appear like a steep rate for online working towards, you is often in a position to circulate any SAP certification exams you set your intellect to with the aid of leveraging all the studying materials purchasable to SAP learning Hub professional subscribers. 

    customarily, SAP certifications executed on some of the two most fresh SAP solutions are regarded current and valid. SAP contacts gurus whose certifications are nearing conclusion-of-life repute and gives suggestions on preserving their credentials.

    SAP licensed technology affiliate statistics and figures

    Certification identify

    SAP licensed technology associate — SAP HANA 2.0 SPS05

    necessities and required courses    

    None required.

    suggested: palms-on adventure and the following classes: 

  • SAP HANA installing & Operations SPS12 (HA200) 
  • high Availability and disaster Tolerance Administration SPS05 (HA201)
  • Monitoring and efficiency equipment SPS05 (HA215)
  • Database Migration the use of DMO SPS05 (HA250)
  • number of exams

    One exam: SAP certified technology affiliate — SAP HANA 2.0 SPS05, examination code C_HANATEC_17 (80 questions, a hundred and eighty minutes)

    cost per examination



    Self-look at substances

    The certification web web page contains a link to pattern questions. SAP HANA alternate books and certification publications are available on Amazon. The SAP aid middle presents product documentation and a working towards and certification FAQs page. The SAP learning Hub (available on a subscription basis) offers entry to online getting to know content.

    Tip: To expand your ability set, accept as true with pursuing the most appropriate earnings certifications to greater sell and put into effect a number of IT solutions, together with databases.

    past the true 5 database certifications

    extra database certification classes can additional the careers of IT professionals who work with database management systems. 

    whereas most schools with computing device science classes offer database tracks on the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. stages, general seller-neutral database certifications exist, together with the following: 

  • ICCP certifications. The Institute for the Certification of Computing professionals (ICCP) offers its entertaining licensed statistics skilled and authorized data Scientist credentials. be trained greater about ICCP certifications from the ICCP website.
  • enterprise DB certifications. EnterpriseDB administers a small however effective certification program with two fundamental certs: the EDB licensed affiliate and the EDB certified knowledgeable. 
  • These are some further certifications: 

    These credentials characterize opportunities for database professionals to extend their ability sets — and salaries. despite the fact, such niches within the database certification enviornment are often most effective price pursuing if you already work with these structures or plan to work for a firm that makes use of them.

    Key takeaway: Pursuing extra database certifications can also be effective for knowledgeable development in case you already work with these structures or plan to work with them sooner or later. 

    Job board search outcomes

    before pursuing certifications, believe their recognition with employers to benefit a valuable perspective on existing database certification demand. here’s a job board snapshot to offer you an idea of what’s trending.




    LinkedIn Jobs



    IBM licensed Database Administrator — DB2






    Azure information Fundamentals






    Oracle certified expert, MySQL Database Administrator






    Oracle Database SQL certified associate Certification












    If the sheer variety of purchasable database-linked positions isn’t ample motivation to pursue a certification, consider commonplace salaries for database directors. SimplyHired reviews $ninety one,949 as the country wide general within the U.S., starting from $sixty four,171 to over $131,753. Glassdoor’s stated normal is a little bit reduce at $84,161, with a good rung for skilled senior DBAs right round $134,000.

    choosing the right certification

    picking out the superior IT certifications to enhance your expertise and raise your career will also be overwhelming, mainly as many purchasable certifications are for proprietary technologies. while making a choice on a database certification can think like locking yourself right into a single expertise household, it is value remembering that many database talents are transferable. moreover, pursuing any certification indicates your willingness to be taught and demonstrates competence to present and future employers. 

    subsequently, deciding on which certification to pursue is dependent upon the applied sciences you employ at work or would like to use at a future supplier.

    Jeremy Bender contributed to the reporting and writing in this article. 


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